Purpose of review: The goals of this review are to describe the complexity of factors influencing the risk of cancer regimen-related mucosal injury (CRRMI), to evaluate the contribution of the innate immune response to CRRMI risk, to compare the concordance of genome analytics in describing mechanism and risk, and to determine if common biological pathways are noted when CRRMI is compared to a disease with a similar phenotype.

Recent findings: The pathogenesis of and risk for CRRMI are complex and influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is incumbent on analyses to recognize the likelihood that the interplay and cross-talk of synergistically expressed factors is critical and that the contributing weights of these factors is not uniform from patient to patient. Genomically derived analyses imply final common pathways are implicit in phenotype expression.

Summary: The identification of specific factors (both genomic and otherwise) which contribute to CRRMI risk represents an important opportunity to apply principles of precision medicine to the management of regimen-related toxicities.